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TELECONFRENCES
2004
The Changing Left Ventricle

2003
Aortic Valve Disease: New Dimensions in Evaluation and Management

2002
Heart Failure: Echo's Role in and Emerging Health Crisis

2001
Chest Pain in Children & Adults: The Role of Echo

2000
Mitral Regurgitation: New Concept

1998
The Falling Left Ventricle: Diastolic & Systolic Function

1997
Changing the Outcome of Coronary Artery Disease
ECHO GRAND ROUNDS
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LEARN THE BASICS
Echocardiography
Doppler Echo
VIDEO ARCHIVES

Chest Pain in Children and Adults

Mitral Regurgitation: New Concepts

Diastolic and Systolic Function

Changing the Outcome of CAD

BROADCAST SUPPLEMENTS
2000 MV
2001 Chest Pain
2002 Heart Failure



JOSEPH A. KISSLO, MD: Duke Center for Echo
DAVID B. ADAMS, RDCS: Duke Center for Echo
GRAHAM J. LEECH, MA: Duke Center for Echo
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Introduction

Echocardiography is a unique noninvasive method for imaging the living heart. It is based on detection of echoes produced by a beam of ultrasound (very high frequency sound) pulses transmitted into the heart.

From its introduction in 1954 to the mid 1970's, most echocardiographic studies employed a technique called M-mode, in which the ultrasound beam is aimed manually at selected cardiac structures to give a graphic recording of their positions and movements. M-mode recordings permit measurement of cardiac dimensions and detailed analysis of complex motion patterns depending on transducer angulation. They also facilitate analysis of time relationships with other physiological variables such as ECG, heart sounds, and pulse tracings, which can be recorded simultaneously.

A more recent development uses electromechanical or electronic techniques to scan the ultrasound beam rapidly across the heart to produce two-dimensional tomographic images of selected cardiac sections. This gives more information than M-mode about the shape of the heart and also shows the spatial relationships of its structures during the cardiac cycle.

A comprehensive echocardiographic examination, utilizing both M-mode and two dimensional recordings, therefore provides a great deal of information about cardiac anatomy and physiology, the clinical value of which has established echocardiography as a major diagnostic tool.

This unit covers the principles of two-dimensional echocardiography in more detail; it explains the normal two-dimensional recordings in terms of the anatomy of the cardiac sections scanned by the ultrasound beam. Some supplementary M-mode recordings are included. Subsequent units will discuss applications of both M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography in acquired and congenital disease.

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